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About Qingdao
Qingdao
Qingdao (help·info) (Simplified Chinese: 青岛; Traditional Chinese: 青島; Pinyin: Qīngdǎo; Wade-Giles: Ch'ing-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. It borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula while looking out to the Yellow Sea, Qingdao today is a major seaport, naval base, and industrial center. It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery. The character 青 (qīng) in Chinese means "green" or "lush," while the character 岛 (dǎo) means "island."
Additional Names
  • Qingdao was formerly known as Jiao'ao (胶澳). German name: Tsingtau.
  • Qindao (琴岛; lit. "Stringed Instrument Isle") is an additional modern name for the area which according to locals refers to the shape of the coastline.
  • Also known by western postal name "TsingTao"
Administration

The sub-provincial city of Qingdao administers 12 county-level divisions, including 7 districts and 5 county-level cities.

Geography and climate

Qingdao is located at the southern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, and Rizhao to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies 10,654 km². The geography of the city is relatively flat while mountains spur up nearby. The highest elevation in the area is 1133 m above sea level. The city has a 730.64-kilometre coastline. Five significant rivers that flow for more than 50 km can be found in the region.

Qingdao enjoys mild summers and relatively warm winters, with the average July temperature at 23.8 °C and the average January temperature at -0.7 °C. The city gets most rain in June and July, at an average of 150 mm.

History

The area of which Qingdao is located today was called Jiao'ao (胶澳) when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty. In 1891, the Qing Government decided to make the area a primary defence base against naval attacks, and planned the construction of a city. Little was done, however, until 1897 when the city was ceded to Germany. The Germans soon turned Tsingtao into a strategically important port that was administered by the Department of the Navy (Reichsmarineamt) rather than the Colonial Office (Reichskolonialamt). They based here their Far East Squadron, allowing the fleet to conduct operations throughout the Pacific. Since 1898 the marines of III. Seebatallion were based at Tsingtao. The German Imperial government planned and built the first streets and institutions of the city we see today, including the world-famous Tsingtao Brewery. German influence extended to other areas of Shandong Province, including the establishment of rival breweries.

Soon after the outbreak of World War I, the German forces, under Admiral Graf von Spee, left Tsingtao rather than waiting to be trapped in the harbour by Allied fleets. After a subsequent minor British naval attack on the German colony in 1914, Japan occupied the city and the surrounding province during the Siege of Tsingtao after Japan's declaration of war on Germany. The failure of the Allied powers to restore Chinese rule to Shandong after the war triggered the May Fourth Movement.

The city reverted to Chinese rule in 1922, under control of the Republic of China. The city became a direct-controlled municipality of the ROC Government in 1929. Japan re-occupied Qingdao in 1938 with its plans of territorial expansion onto China's coast. After World War II the KMT allowed Qingdao to serve as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the US Navy. On 2nd June, 1949, the CCP-led Red Army entered Qingdao and the city and province have been under PRC control since that time.

Since the 1984 inauguration of China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, Qingdao has developed quickly as a modern port city. It is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet.

Qingdao is now a manufacturing centre, and home to Haier Corporation a major electronics firm. The city has recently experienced a rapid growing period, with a new central business district created to the east of the older business district. Outside of the centre of the city there is a large industrial zone, which includes chemical processing, rubber and heavy manufacturing, in addition to a growing high tech area.

Demographics

By the end of 2002, Qingdao was estimated to be the home of more than 7 million inhabitants, of which around 2.6 million reside in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 2.3 million live in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual birth rate is calculated around 82,000, with a birth rate of 11.26/1000 population, and a death rate of 6.93/1000 population, both calculated on an annual basis. This results to a 4.33/1000 population growth rate overall, not counting immigration, which is substantial. Living standards are among highest of leading Chinese cities due to the strong export economy and relatively high family wages.

While Qingdao is home to 38 Chinese ethnic minorities they constitute only 0.14% of the city's total population. Qingdao boasts a vibrant expatriate community, led by the Korean community which comprised over 60,000 individuals in 2005.

Economy

Qingdao is perhaps most famously known for the Tsingtao Brewery, which German settlers founded in 1903, and which produces Tsingtao beer, now the most famous beer in China and known worldwide. It is also home to Haier, the third largest white goods manufacturer in the world, and Hisense, a major electronics company in China.

In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. South Korea and Japan in particular made extensive investment in the city. At least 30,000 South Korean nationals reside there. Construction proceeds at a relatively fast pace in Qingdao.

In terms of primary industry, Qingdao has an estimated 50,000 acres (200 km²) of arable land. Qingdao has a zigzagging pattern coastline, and thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and other sea resources. Qingdao is also home to a variety of mineral resources. Up to thirty different kinds have been mined. Qingdao's wind power electricity generation performs at among the best levels in the region.

The GDP per capita comprised RMB¥29,596 (ca. US$3,659) in 2004. The GDP has grown steadily at an average pace of 14% annually.

Transportation

The Orient Ferry connects Qingdao with Shimonoseki, Japan. There are two ferry lines connecting Qingdao with South Korea. The New Golden Bridge II operates between Qingdao and Incheon, and the Blue Sea Ferry operates between Qingdao and Gunsan.

The Qingdao Liuting International Airport, 36 kilometres away from city centre, is served by 13 domestic and international airlines, operating 58 routes of which 10 are international and regional. It is estimated that in 2002 over 2.3 million people, including 450,000 international travellers, were transported through the airport.

Qingdao hosts one of China's largest seaports. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. The 1999 annual cargo handling capacity was 72 million tons. Exported commodities amounted to more than 35 million tons and 1.5 million TEUs.

Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 90's. At the present, domestic rail lines connect Qingdao with Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Jinan and Jining. There are a total of 1,145km of roads in the Qingdao area, with nearly 500km of expressways. Expressways connect Qingdao with Jinan. The specially designed high-altitude railcars required for the Qingzang railway (), the highest railway in the world, are also built in Qingdao.

Qingdao's public traffic owns about 3,800 large and medium-sized buses and trolleybuses of many types. The volume of road passenger transportation approaches 0.6 billion per year. The lengths of highways on operation are 2,679 km, including 134 alignments. At the present, the traffic mileage is more than 0.16 billion km per year. The Public Transport Brand of 'Ri Xi Bus' is also known in China.

Culture

Through the unique combination of German and Chinese architecture in the city centre, combined with modern high-rises and freeways, along a coastline of beaches, rocky headlands, and picturesque cypress trees, give Qingdao a distinct atmosphere not found anywhere else in the world. Qingdao is proud to be the host city for several events of the 2008 Olympics, including the sailing competitions which will take place along the complicated shoreline directly offshore from the city.

Unlike many large Chinese cities with a long history, Qingdao is a relative newcomer, being nothing but a fishing village in 1897. The majority of residents are immigrants having migrated from other locations to take advantage of the opportunities Qingdao offers. Nonetheless a distinctive local accent known as "Qingdao Hua青岛话" distinguishes the residents of the city from those of the surrounding province.

The distinctive cuisine is Lu Cai, the Shandong regional style.

The area's most famous festival is the Qingdao International Beer Festival, held annually since 1991.

Tourism

Qingdao attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and excellent weather. Parks, beaches, sculpture and some unique architecture line the shore. For more information head over to the Qingdao Information Centre for International Visitors located on XiangGang Zhong Lu. Qingdao's major attractions include:

Education

Post-secondary educational institutions in Qingdao include:

Secondary School:

There are also several international schools in Qingdao. These include:

Sports

Qingdao has long been a hub of professional sports in China. Clubs include:

Along with Beijing's winning bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics, Qingdao will be the site for sailing events. These events will be held in Fushan Bay, near the city's central business district. A hotel and an international broadcasting centre are under construction.

Sister Cities

Qingdao is a sister city of the following cities around the world.

Useful Links
http://en.wikipedia.orghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qingdao

 

青岛市
Qīngdǎo Shì
Abbreviation: 青 or 胶 (Pinyin: Jiāo)
Qingdao is highlighted on this map
Administration Type Sub-provincial city
City Seat Shinan District
(36°5′N, 120°20′E)
Area 10,654 sq km
Coastline 862.64 km
(inclusive of offshore islands)
730.64 km
(exclusive of islands)
Population 7,311,200 (2004) The urban area measures 1,102 square kilometres and urban residents total 2,584,000. [1].
GDP
- Total
- Per Capita
 
RMB¥216.38 billion (2004)
RMB¥29,596 (2004)
Major Nationalities Han - 95.48%
County-level divisions 12
Township-level divisions .
CPC Committee Secretary [[]]
Mayor Xia Geng (夏耕)
Area code 532
Postal Code 266000
(Shinan District)
266100-266700
(Other areas)
License Plate Prefix 鲁B & 鲁U
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