Qingdao, also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million (2010 census) in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. The character 青 in Chinese means "green" or "lush", while the character 岛 means "island". Qingdao is administered at the sub-provincial level.
Lying across the Shandong Peninsula while looking out to the Yellow Sea, Qingdao is a major seaport, naval base, and industrial centre. It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery. The world`s longest sea bridge, the Qingdao Haiwan Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas. In 2009, Qingdao was named China`s most livable city.
Qingdao, on the coast of the Yellow Sea, lies in the south of Shandong Peninsula (at 35°35`N ? 37°09`N and 119°30`E ? 121°00`E). It faces the Republic of Korea and Japan across the sea in the east.
Qingdao has a total area of 10,654 square kilometers, 1,159 square kilometers of which is the urban area.
Qingdao currently has seven districts including Shinan, Shibei, Sifang, Licang, Laoshan, Huangdao and Chengyang, and five county-level cities of Jiaonan, Jiaozhou, Jimo, Pingdu and Laixi.
Geographically, Shinan is viewed as the old downtown, located in the south of Qingdao city proper, while Sifang and Shibei are located in the center of the city with Shibei designated as the new downtown, and Licang located further up the peninsula in the outskirts of the city. In 2003, the percentage of Qingdao`s population in these four districts was 21.0 percent, 20.8 percent, 16.8 percent, and 12.5 percent, respectively.
Qingdao is located on the south facing coast of the Shandong Peninsula. It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, and Rizhao to the southwest. The city`s total jurisdiction area occupies 10,654 square kilometres (4,114 sq mi), and stretches in latitude from 35° 35` to 37° 09` N and in longitude from 119° 30` to 121° 00` E. The populated sections of the city are relatively flat while mountains spur up within city limits and nearby. The highest elevation in the city is 1,133 metres (3,717 ft) above sea level. 15.5% of the total area is highland, while the foothill, plain and lowland areas constitute 25.1%, 37.8% and 21.7%. The city has a 730.64 kilometres (454.00 mi) coastline. Five significant rivers that flow for more than 50 kilometres (31 mi) can be found in the region.
Qingdao has a temperate, four-season, monsoon-influenced climate that falls on the borderline between humid subtropical (Köppen Cwa) and humid continental (Köppen Dwa). Winter is cool to cold and windy, but generally dry, with a January average of ?0.5 °C (31.1 °F). Summer is generally hot and humid, but very hot days are rare, with an August average of 25.3 °C (77.5 °F). Due to its proximity to the coast and being on a peninsula, it experiences a one-month delayed spring compared to most inland areas of China. Conversely, autumn is milder than inland areas in Shandong. The water temperature peaks at about 25 °C (77 °F) in late August, with swimming possible two months on either side. The annual mean temperature is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F).
Qingdao has a total permanent population of 8.4561 million and a total household registered population of 7.6156 million, in particular, urban permanent population is 3.4745 million and urban household registered population is 2.7625 million.
Qingdao retains many buildings with a German architectural styleThe unique combination of German and Chinese architecture in the city centre, combined with German demographic roots and a large Korean expatriate population, gives Qingdao a distinct atmosphere. A larger number of areas in former foreign styles are well preserved. Although the new city area is under large-scale reconstruction, the old city area (especially Taixi) still retains some traditional buildings.
Kang Youwei (康有为)
Wen Yiduo (闻一多)
Shen Congwen (沈从文)
Xiao Hong (萧红)
Xiao Jun (萧军)
Liang Shiqiu (梁实秋)
Duanmu Hongliang (端木蕻良)
Zang Kejia (臧克家)
Sun Li (孙犁)
Tong Dizhou (童第周)
Li Zhaoxing (李肇星)
Victoria Song (宋茜)
Other notable people include:
Qiu Chuji (丘处机)
Gao Fenghan (高凤翰)
Mifune Toshiro (was born in Qingdao)
Li Cunxin (李存信)
Huang Xiaoming (黃曉明)
Chen Hao (陈好)
Xia Yu (夏雨)
Wang Dong (Chinese Footballer)
A local accent known as Qingdao dialect (青岛话) distinguishes the residents of the city from those of the surrounding Shandong province. Due to the efforts by the city government to promote standard Mandarin, most educated people can speak that language in addition to their native language. With reform policies and English teaching, some young citizens have been taught English and many can converse with foreigners. Business and traffic signs in English are becoming more and more common.
Seafood is a typical delicacy of the coastal city, divided into two categories: "Great Seafood" including sea cucumbers, abalones, shark`s fin, prawns, crabs, conch, and some big fish, and "Little Seafood" comprising squid, shrimps, octopus, oysters, razor clams, clams, periwinkles, yellow croakers, etc. Generally, fresh seafood is served in every hotel.
The distinctive cuisine of the area is Lu Cai, the Shandong regional style.
International Beer Festival in August/September, held annually since 1991
China International Afforestation Fair, since 2003
APEC SMEs Technology Conference and Fair
China Qingdao Fishing Competition
Qingdao Bar-Culture Festival
China International Exposition of electronic home appliances
China Qingdao Ocean Festival
China International Maritime Exhibition
Qingdao International Fashion Week
China International Fishery Fair
China Qingdao International Hot Air Balloon Festival
Qingdao International Beach Festival
An important region in Eastern China, Shandong Province has seen substantial change in its economic landscape in recent years. Much of this development has been concentrated in Qingdao. Qingdao has seen rapid development. Enjoying an annual growth rate of 18.9 percent in 2006, the city`s GDP reached 42.3 billion, ranking first in Shandong Province and tenth out of China`s top 20 cities. GDP per capita comprised RMB¥52,895 (US$7,616) in 2008. The GDP has grown steadily at an average pace of 16% annually. In 2006, Qingdao was ranked one of six "golden cities" by the World Bank, out of 120 Chinese cities assessed on factors including investment climate and government effectiveness.
Internationally, Qingdao is perhaps best known for its Tsingtao Brewery, founded by a German-British joint venture in 1903 that produces Tsingtao beer, the most well-known Chinese export beer. It is also home to Haier, a large white goods manufacturer, and Hisense, a major electronics company. In 2002 guitar manufacturer Epiphone opened a factory in Qingdao.
In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. South Korea and Japan in particular made extensive investment in the city. Approximately 80,000 South Korean citizens reside there. Construction proceeds at a relatively fast pace in Qingdao.
In terms of primary industry, Qingdao has an estimated 50,000 acres (200 km²) of arable land. Qingdao has a zigzagging pattern coastline, and thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and other sea resources.
Qingdao is also home to a variety of mineral resources. Up to thirty different kinds have been mined. Qingdao`s wind power electricity generation performs at among the best levels in the region. The city has also a number of paper mills. One plant is called Qingdao Bei Fa paper mill. Mill`s machine is Karlstads Mekaniska Werkstad (KMW)-made (width 3048 mm) and it was acquired from Kajaani paper mill in Finland in the middle of the 1980s.
The lengths of highways on operation are 14,326 km, including 700 km Expressways. At the present, the traffic mileage is more than 6.02 billion km per year. There are a total of 1,145 km of roads in the Qingdao area, with nearly 500 km of expressways. Expressways connect Qingdao with Jinan.
The Orient Ferry connects Qingdao with Shimonoseki, Japan. There are two ferry lines connecting Qingdao with South Korea. The New Golden Bridge II operates between Qingdao and Incheon, and the Blue Sea Ferry operates between Qingdao and Gunsan.
Qingdao hosts one of China`s largest seaports. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. The 1999 annual cargo handling capacity was 72 million tons. Exported commodities amounted to more than 35 million tons and 1.5 million Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo.
The Qingdao Liuting International Airport, 65 kilometres away from city centre, is served by 13 domestic and international airlines, operating 94 routes, 12 of which are international and regional. It is estimated that in 2007 that 7.868 million people, including 1,082,000 international travelers, were transported through the airport.
Qingdao Railway Station
Qingdao`s railway development was picked up during the late 1990s. It is at the beginning of the Jiaoji Railway. Qingdao`s city proper has some major railway stations, Qingdao Station, Sifang Station， Cangkou Station, Great-Seaport Station, etc. At the present, domestic rail lines connect Qingdao with cities including Beijing, Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi`an, Zhengzhou, Jinan and Jining.
Qingdao`s public traffic owns about 4,500 large and medium-sized fangpi buses, CNG buses and trolleybuses, operating more than 200 routes. All of these buses and trolleybuses can be accessed using the Qingdao Public Traffic IC Card (Ri-Xin Card 日新卡), which uses radio frequencies so the card does not have to physically touch the scanner. The volume of road passenger transport approaches 0.8 billion per year. The Public Transport Brand of `Ri-Xin Bus (日新巴士)` is also known in China.
There are a number of taxi companies in Qingdao including Yiqing Company, Zhongqing Company, Jiaoyun Company and, Huaqing Company.
Qingdao is ready to spend more than 29 billion yuan ($4.2 billion) before 2016 on its subway construction, the government announced on 18 August 2009 after getting the approval from the State Council. The construction of 54.7 km mileage of subway line will be completed before 2016 with a total investment of 29.2 billion yuan ($4.3 billion). The city plans to build eight subway lines in downtown and some suburban districts, which account for 231.5 kilometers in future.
Qingdao attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and temperate weather. Parks, beaches, sculpture and unique German and modern architecture line the shore. For more information head over to the Qingdao Information Centre for International Visitors located on Mid-Hong Kong Road (Xianggang Zhong Lu).
Qingdao`s major attractions
Historical Euro-Asia Area
Former site of the headquarters of the German Administration
The Protestant Church(基督教堂)
The pier on the seafront
Zhan Qiao (Pier, 栈桥)
Little Qingdao Isle (小青岛)
Tian Hou Temple (天后宫), Qingdao Folk Museum
Ba Da Guan (Eight Great Passes, 八大关), the older area of town with some surviving German and Japanese architecture.
Lu Xun Park, named after Lu Xun (鲁迅), a famous modern Chinese writer and critic, who lived and taught in 1930s.
Zhongshan Park, named after the style name `Zhongshan` of Sun Zhongshan (孙文，字中山), a famous modern Chinese politician.
Xiao Yu Shan (Little Fish Hill, 小鱼山)
Qingdao Botanical Garden
Qingdao Zoological Garden
The twin-spired St. Michael`s Cathedral (天主教堂), one piece of the famous Neo-romanesque architecture in Qingdao, designed by German architect Alfred Fräbel, completed in 1934.
Flower-floor (花石楼), the place for previous German governors to fish, hunt or rest.
Qingdao Underwater World, Qingdao Aquarium
Jiaozhou Governor`s Hall (提督府), office building of former German governors [Gouverneurspalast] and former municipal government
Guest House, a classic German Castle
Xinhao Hill (信号山)
Astronomical Observatory Hill (观象山)
Tuan Dao Shan|Tuan Dao Shan (Dumpling Peninsula Hill, 团岛山)
Underground World of Chinese Mythology, life-size figures and groups depicting scenes from the Chinese mythology.
Qingdao Hill Fort ruins
Qingdao Naval Museum
The Protestant Church(基督教堂)
Qingdao Bathing Beaches, there are 6 well-known beaches with complete facilities.
The Flourishing Eastern Area
May Fourth Square Coastal plaza with the Wind of May sculpture
Music Square, famous for the Sail of Music
Qingdao Seaside Sightseeing Path
Qingdao International Beer town, the primary site of the annual Qingdao International Beer Festival.
Tsingtao Brewery, originally founded by Germans and the most exported beer from China.
Qingdao Sculpture Museum
Qingdao Etsong Natural Grass Ski Field
Zhanshan Temple, Qingdao`s oldest Buddhist temple.
Lao Shan (Mount Lao, 崂山), 40 km east of Qingdao, the most famous Taoist mountain with Taoist retreat - Great Purity Palace (太清宫).
Jufeng (Huge Peak, 巨峰)
Nine Waters & Eighteen Pools (九水十八潭)
Kang Cheng Shuyuan (Kang Cheng Study House, 康成书院)
Stone Old Man (Shi Laoren, 石老人) Sightseeing Garden
QD Polar World
Langya Observation Resort (瑯琊台度假区), located in the previous Qi State, Jiaonan City.
Great Wall of Qi
Chanzhi Reservoir, located 10 kilometres to the north of Laixi city, on the middle and upperreaches of the Dagu River.
Sanlihe Garden, Jiaozhou City
Post-secondary educational institutions
Ocean University of China
Ocean University of China (formerly Ocean University of Qingdao), the primary university of the specialty in China
Petroleum University of China, Qingdao campus
Qingdao University of Science and Technology
Qingdao Technological University
Shandong University of Economics and Trade
Qingdao Hotel and Management College
Qingdao Agricultural University
Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao campus
Qingdao Oxford International College
Qingdao American International School
Qingdao No.1 International School
Qingdao MTI International School
Yew Chung International School of Qingdao